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Full text of "The manufacture and properties of iron and steel"

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The information concerning Spain is taken from a paper by Alzola, Jour. I, & S. I. Vol. 11,1896, and from miscellaneous sources.
Spain claims our consideration as a source of supply for ore.   It lias been announced many times that the mines were exhausted, and                          \ f
it is a fact that the ore is growing leaner. At some mines considerable spathic ore is shipped, which was not considered of value fifteen years ago, but in spite of the immense amounts of ore produced for so many years the output has steadily increased, and the year 1899 saw by far the greatest record, the output of the mines being 9,400,000 tons, four-fifths of which was raised around Bilbao. A considerable quantity of this is smelted in the neighborhood of the mines, and there are a few steel works of considerable magnitude in the district, the fuel being drawn from coal mines in Asturias, 200 miles west of Bilbao. The local works, however, use but a small proportion of the ore output, and in 1900 over 90 per cent, was exported, the port of Bilbao sending out two-thirds of the whole. England claimed three-quarters of the shipments and Germany the greater part of the rest. Detailed figures are shown in Table XXX-A and Fig. XXX-A. The Bilbao ore proper comes from an area 15 miles in length and 2-| miles in width. Four classes are distinguished:*
i;  (1)  Vena, a soft purple compact and often powdery hematite. :: (2) Campanil, a compact and crystalline red hematite, often ac-epmpanied by rhombohedra of carbonate of lime. ': (3) Rubio, a brown hematite mixed with silicious material.
(4) Carbonate, a gray granular and silieious or a creamy white laminated and crystalline spathic iron ore.
Yena is the purest and was the only one used in the ancient local
*Brough, Cantor Lectures Soc. Arts, Man. and Commerce. Feb., 1900. 601